Invited Session at ECSS MetropolisRuhr 2017 “The Individual Human Phenotype – Effects of Genetics, Epigenetics, Exercise and Nutrition”
German Sport University
Epigenetics is one of the hot topic research fields in human science disciplines. Evidence suggests that modifications of the
chromatin (e.g. histone modifications and DNA-methylation) as well as the expression of micro RNA molecules play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of several diseases. These mechanisms are involved in the development and maintenance of physical performance by epigenetic modifications of smooth muscle cell-, cardiomyocyte- and endothelial progenitor cell proliferation/differentiation, muscle fibers, satellite cells as well as cells involved in extracellular matrix processing, inflammation and endothelial function (e.g. endothelial nitric oxide synthase regulation). Besides other lifestyle factors, physical activity and sports essentially contribute to health, physical
performance and regeneration.
It will be focused on recent research proposing physical activity as a potent epigenetic regulator in tissue and organs with consequence for function, adaption and regeneration. Especially the modifications of the chromatin by histone modifications and
DNA-methylation by physical activity are focused. The sparse knowledge of physical exercise induced modulation in different cells types associated to performance and health will be discussed.
More knowledge about the molecular mechanisms and dose-response relationships of exercise are needed to understand the role of epigenetic modulation for performance and health by physical exercise programs.